Statues and monuments

The statues and monuments of the Cleveland Cultural Gardens

The Cultural Gardens feature more than 80 monuments and busts that express the cultural pride of more than 30 ethnic groups.

If you’re a history buff, an arts lover, or a fan of science, there will be something for you and for everyone in the Cultural Gardens. Links to each garden’s web page are on a separate tab on the CCGF site.

(This page will be updated as photos and more information become available.)

The statues and monuments are listed here in alphabetical order:

  1. Ady, Andre (1877-1919) is considered the greatest Hungarian poet of the 20th century. He was noted for his belief in social progress. His poetry explored fundamental questions of love, faith and patriotism. His statue in the Hungarian Garden was installed in 1954.
  2. Aligheri, Dante (1265-1321). The poet Dante is best known as the author of The Divine Comedy. He is known as the Supreme Poet in Italy and is considered the father of the modern Italian language. His statue in the Italian Garden was dedicated in 2012.
  3. Alphabet Monument (dedicated 2010) Part of the Armenian Garden, the Alphabet is composed of staggered granite blocks, representing both the turbulent history of the Armenian people and the ruggedly beautiful landscape of Armenia and the Caucasus Mountains. St. Mesrop Mashtots invented the alphabet circa 404 CE in order to translate the Bible into the Armenian language.
  4. Arch of Palmyra. This prominent feature of the Syrian Garden was installed in 2013. It is a smaller replica of the Monumental Arch of Palmyra in Syria, which was built in the third century. It was also called the Arch of Septimus Severus after the Roman ruler. The arch in Syria featured ornate stone carvings and reliefs depicting plants and geometric designs and was a revered ancient artifact. The Syrian arch was destroyed by ISIS in 2015.
  5. Baar, Jindrich Simon (1869-1925) Baar, whose statue is in the Czech Garden, was a Catholic priest and writer, realist and a leader in the so-called country prose movement. As a writer, he emphasized traditional moral values of the countryside. The statue was designed by Cleveland sculptor Frank Jirouch and installed in the late 1930s.
  6. Bach, Johann Sebastian (1869-1925) German composer of the Baroque period, best known for such masterpieces as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations. He is also known for vocal music such as St. Matthew’s Passion and the Mass in B Minor and is considered one of the greatest composers of all time.
  7. Baptismal Font. The baptismal font on the upper level of the Croatian Garden is a replica of a Prince Viseslay font, which represents the conversion of Croatia to Christianity. The six benches surrounding the piece are made from Brac stone imported from Croatia. The Baptismal Font was installed in 2014.
  8. Baraga, Iraneous Frederic (1797-1868) Baraga was a Roman Catholic Slovene priest who was assigned as a missionary to the United States. He served as a bishop in Cincinnati and in Marquette,Michigan and Wisconsin. He is known for having ministered to diverse communities and spoke several languages. Baraga had grown up during the Napoleonic wars, when France had ruled Slovene lands and became fluent in French and later German. In the United States, he worked with the Ojibway Indians in Wisconsin and wrote grammar texts in the Ojibway language. He was known as the “snowshoe priest” because he would travel hundreds of miles in the snow to minister to his communities. He also worked to protect the Indians from being forced to relocate. His letters were published widely in Europe and helped to inspire other notable priests to move to America. He was designated “venerable” by Pope Benedict in 2012.
  9. Basanavicious, Jonas (1851-1927). Basanavicious was a physician and activist. He was a proponent of the Lithuanian National Revival and promoted Lithuanian independence. He also was a leader in the Lithuanian Scientific Society. He was the first to sign the Lithuanian Independence Act in 1918. His statue was dedicated in 1936. It is a copy of an original by Jonas Zikaras, installed in the Museum of Kamas in Lithuania.
  10. Beckett, Samuel (1906-1989). Samuel Beckett, honored in the Irish Garden’s Writers’ Court, was a Nobel-prize winning writer. He was a novelist, playwright, short story writer, theater director, poet and literary translator. His work often featured tragic-comic views of human existence and used gallows humor. Beckett is best known for the play Waiting for Godot.
  11. Behan, Brendan Frances Aidan (1923-1964). Behan was a poet, short story writer, novelist and playwright. His work often touched on the Irish Republican struggle. He was steeped in Irish history and culture and wrote in English and Irish. A volunteer in the Irish Republican Army, he was briefly imprisoned in the U.K. in his youth. His most famous works include the best-selling autobiographical novel Borstal Boy. His funeral in 1964 was said to be the largest in Ireland after Michael Collins and Charles Stewart Parnell.
  12. Boat Bench, Estonian Garden. This planter in the shape of a boat was part of the Estonian Garden’s restoration in 2010. The Baltic Sea is an important part of Estonian life, and this monument reflects that connection. Text inscribed on the bottom of the boat is from the epic Estonian poem Kalevipoeg.
  13. Borovsky, Karel Havlicek (1821-1856). Borovsky, though he died young, made his mark on the Czech culture as a writer, philosopher, politician, journalist and publisher. As a writer, he is best known for the books Baptism of St. Vladimir, King Lavra and Tirol Laments. The statue of Borovsky in the Czech Garden was created by Frank Jirouch.
  14. Fountain of Burite. Burite (birth date unknown, died 1382) was a Grand Duchess of Lithuania and the mother of Grand Duke Vytautas the Great, (1350 – 1430), one of the most famous rulers of medieval Lithuania.
  15. Chopin, Frederic (1810-1849). Chopin was one of the greatest composers and virtuoso pianists of the Romantic era. A native of Warsaw, Chopin wrote waltzes, mazurkas, nocturnes, polonaises, sonatas and preludes. His bust in the Polish Garden was sculpted by Cleveland artist Charles Dienes and was dedicated in 1947.
  16. Confucius (551-479 B.C). Confucious, a philosopher and politician, is considered one of the most influential people in human history. His school of thought survived early attempts at suppression and his beliefs continue to impress individuals and society today. His teachings emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness and sincerity. He also valued strong family loyalty, veneration of ancestors, and respect for elders. He promoted the Golden Rule of “do onto others…” His statue and the entire Chinese Garden were a gift from the city of Tapeii, Taiwan, and dedicated in 1985.
  17. Copernicus, Nicholas (1473-1543). A Renaissance-era mathematician and scholar, Copernicus formulated a model that placed the sun, rather than the earth, at the center of the universe. His “On the Revolution of Celestial Spheres” is considered a major event in the history of science and led to the Copernican Revolution and the Scientific Revolution. Copernicus also was a classics scholar, a translator, governor, diplomat and economist. His statue is in the Polish Garden.
  18. Curie, Marie Sklodowski (1867-1934). The Polish physicist and chemist Marie Curie was the first woman to win two Nobel prizes and the only person to win the award in two different fields. She developed the theory of radioactivity, techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes and discovered two elements, polodium and radium. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris, which remain major centers of medical research today. Curie also developed mobile x-ray units to be used for field hospitals. Her statue in the Polish Garden was dedicated in 1949 and sculpted by Cleveland artist Frank Jirouch. Funds for her statue were raised by the American Polish Women’s Club.
  19. Door of No Return (with Infinity Fountain). This striking monument sits at the top of the African American Cultural Garden along Ansel Road, looking down on Martin Luther King Boulevard. It is part of the Past Pavilion, the first stage of the AACG. The entire pavilion translates the experience of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade and the forced passage to America. The Door of No Return is the sandstone portal which signifies an unknown transition. The pavilion also includes black granite sculptural walls which create a sensation of compression, tension and apprehension. The Infinity Fountain echoes the illusion of the tranquility of the Atlantic Ocean as seen through the actual Door of No Return. The monument was designed by architect Daniel W. Bickerstaff.
  20. Duchnovich, Alexander (1803-1865). Duchnovich was a Catholic priest, prose writer and poet who promoted Rusyn identity and language. He wrote the Rusyn National Anthem. The original bust of Duchnovich was sculpted by Frank Jirouch and installed in 1952; it was lost sometime in the 1970s, then resculpted by Wawrytko Studeos and Light Sculpture Works. The new bust was dedicated in 2011.
  21. Dvorak, Antonin (1841-1904). Antonin Dvorak was the first Bohemian composer to achieve worldwide recognition and was noted for turning folk material into Romantic symphonies. He was a leader in the Czech nationalist movement in music. Among Dvorak’s most famous works is the New World Symphony. His statue was created by Frank Jirouch and installed in 1938.
  22. Enescu, George (1881-1955). Enescu is considered Romania’s greatest musician and composer. He was a violinist, composer, conductor and renowned teacher. A child prodigy, Enescu wrote his first opus for piano and violin (Romanian Land) at age five; at age seven, he became the youngest student ever admitted to the Vienna Conservatory, and at 10, he performed at a concert before Emperor Franz Joseph. He studied in Paris in his teens and premiered his first mature work there at age 16. Enescu wrote five symphonies, a series of works called Romanian Rhapsodies, along with voluminous chamber music. In 1923, he performed his first concert in the United States, appearing with the Philadelphia Orchestra at Carnegie Hall. He performed in the United States many times throughout his life. His most famous student was Yehudi Menuhin, but he mentored many students who went on to distinguished careers. Enescu lived in Paris after Romania was occupied by the Soviet Union following World War II. His statue in the Romanian Garden was installed in 1967.
  23. Ethiopian Ceramic Mural (2019). This mural, in the first Cultural Garden from an African country, depicts aspects of Ethiopian Culture in five panels. The first, Cradle of Humankind, features “Lucy,” thought to be the first human fossil, and 4,000-year-old cave paintings from Dire Dawa; the second, Southern Peoples and All Other Ethnic Groups, honors the 77 linguistic groups in Ethiopia, all descended from one “Afro-Asiatic” tribe. Panel three represents the Early Civilizations of Axum (200 BC to 1000 A.D.) and the Lalibela civilization around 1200 A.D. The fourth panel is titled Succession of Emperors; the four (after the time of Menelik) were Tewodros, Yohannes, Melenik II (with Empress Taytu) and Haile Selassie. The fifth panel, the Modern Period, depicts the rise of knowledge and science in the modern era and hope for wisdom to accompany knowledge. The mural was created by artist Zerihum Yetmgeta and developed by ceramic tile artist Ernesto Spinelli.
  24. Flame, Estonian Garden (dedicated 1996). This abstract sculpture with a flame at its center was designed by Oberlin graduate and architect Herk Visnapuu. The symbol of freedom was considered bold by some when it was unveiled, because Estonia was still part of the former Soviet Union. It features a tapered cement shaft with curved tips. The inscription on the monument is from Kalevipoeg, an epic Estonian poem.
  25. Franko, Ivan (1856-1916). Franko was a Ukrainian poet, writer, political activist, philosopher and translator. He famously translated the works of Shakespeare, Victor Hugo, Goethe and many others into the Ukrainian language. Franko also was a founder of the socialist and nationalist movements in western Ukraine, and his work had a tremendous impact on literary and political thought in Ukraine. The bust of Ivan Franko was designed by Kiev-born Alexander Archipenko, one of the founders of Cubism. It was dedicated in 1939.
  26. Fuderk, Stefan (1855-1915). Fr. Fuderk is one of the most beloved and prominent early leaders of the Slovak community in Cleveland. A Catholic priest, he was sent to the United States from his homeland to attend seminary here and serve Czech and Slovak immigrants. In 1888, he organized St. Ladislaus Church in Cleveland, the first parish to serve Slovaks and Hungarians and he founded the First Catholic Slovak Union, a fraternal insurance organization that grew to 45,000 members. He also wrote several books with religious and education themes. His statue was created by J. Tenkacs and dedicated in 1932.
  27. Gandhi, Mohandas K. (1869-1948) Gandhi, a lawyer, anti-colonialist and political ethicist, led the successful campaign to establish India’s independence from British rule. His theory and practice of nonviolent resistance has been a model for peace movements ever since. As seen in this statue, Gandhi wore a loincloth as a mark of identification with India’s rural poor. The statue was imported from India and installed in 2005. Gandhi’s grandson came to the Cultural Gardens for the dedication.
  28. Gagarin, Yuri (1934-1968) Gagarin was the first human in outer space; orbiting the earth as a Soviet pilot in 1961. After that famous flight, Gagarin became a national hero in the former Soviet Union. He died in a jet crash during a training exercise. Gagarin’s bust was dedicated in the Russian Garden during One World Day celebrations in the Cultural Gardens in 2019.
  29. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von (1749-1832) and Schiller, Friedrich (1759-1805). Goethe and Schiller were contemporaries who are considered among the greatest writers of all time. Together, they contributed to the Weimer Classism and Sturm and Drang movements in German literature. Because of their friendship and collaboration, they often are pictured together. Goethe wrote novels, epic and lyric poetry, prose, memoirs, plays, treatises on botany and anatomy, and thousands of letters; he is considered perhaps the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. He is known for the works Faust, The Sorrows of Young Werther, and Prometheus. Schiller, also a prolific novelist, prose writer and poet, counted among his works The Robbers, Don Carlos, Mary Stuart, and Ode to Joy. Goethe and Schiller together wrote Xenien, a satirical poem, and other works.

    The Goethe and Schiller statue is a replica of a Weimer, Germany statue that was modeled in 1856 by Ernest Reitschal of Dresden. It originally was installed in Wade Park, then moved to the German Cultural Garden in 1939.

  30. Grand Prince of Kiev (958-1015), also known as Vladimir Sviatoslavich, or St. Vladimir. The Grand Prince consolidated the Kievan (Ukrainian) realm from what is now modern-day Belarus, Russia to the Baltic Sea. He converted from pagan beliefs to Christianity in 988 and Christianized the region; Vladimir established many churches and schools. His bust in the Ukrainian Garden was the work of sculptor Alexander Archipenko, a Ukrainian artist who immigrated to the United States in the 1920s. His work, part of the cubist movement, departed from classical sculptural design and used negative space in creative ways. His bust, along with two others, disappeared from the Garden in the 1970s; they were thought to have been stolen but were later found in a municipal garage where they had been placed for safekeeping. Fiberglass copies were made and placed back in the Garden. The originals can be found in the Ukrainian museum in Tremont.
  31. Heaney, Seamus (1939-2013). Heaney, who won the 1995 Nobel Prize for Literature is widely regarded as one of the greatest Irish poets of all time and particularly of the 20th century. A native of Northern Ireland, he wrote of ordinary lives and his Irish heritage. He was a professor at Oxford and Harvard Universities. His works include Death of a Naturalist.

  32. Hearth (dedicated 2008) This sculpture is the main feature of the Azerbaijani Garden. Created by Khanlar Gasimov, the bowl-shaped sculpture is made of stainless steel and allows the viewer to see the reflection of the earth and sky in its exterior and interior curves. “Hearth” was inspired by the 12th century Azerbaijani poet Ganjavi and the 14th century philosopher Imadeddin Nasimi. It is intended to embody contradiction. According to Gasimov, “its physical form, with its definitive height and diameter, represents limits, containment and the finite, while the circles represent boundlessness, openness.”
  33. Herbert, Victor (1859-1924) Herbert was an American of Irish Heritage and famed composer. His most popular works were operettas that appeared on Broadway as musicals from the 1890s until the start of World War I. They include Babes in Toyland, Naughty Marietta, and Old Dutch. Herbert was the co-founder of the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) and influenced the creation of the Copyright Act of 1909. Herbert’s monument is in the Irish Garden.
  34. Heritage Pillars, Indian Garden. Designed by architect Jim McKnight and dedicated in 2005, the Heritage Pillars adjacent to the statue of Gandhi express different aspects of Indian cultures. They are: Universal Brotherhood (with inscriptions that include ancient texts stating that the world is one family); Legacy, which outlines India’s contributions to humanity; Artistic Traditions (in visual and performing arts); Leadership, which discusses ancient and modern leaders of India; Modern India, denoting the status of modern India and the Indian diaspora in America; and Connections, or historical connections between India and America.
  35. Hrushevsky, Miykahil Serhiyovych (1866-1934). Hrushevsky was a historian, statesman and one of the leading figures in the Ukrainian national revival of the early 20th century. Considered of one Ukraine’s leading historians, he sought to promote a Ukrainian identity that unified the eastern and western parts of the country. Hrushevsky was head of the revolutionary parliament of 1917-1918. His statue was made by sculptor Frank Jirouch.
  36. Humboldt, Alexander (1769-1859). Humboldt was a polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer and proponent of the Romantic movement in science. The German scholar laid the foundation for the field of biogeography and modern meteorological monitoring. He traveled in the Americas from 1799 to 1804 and proposed that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined. Between 1800 and 1831, his writings noted that humans might influence climate change. Humboldt’s Cosmos: A Sketch of the Physical Description of the Universe, was one of the most influential treatises on science and nature in the 19th century. His statue is in the German Garden.
  37. Immigrant Mother This statue on the lower level of the Croatian Garden was created by noted Cleveland sculptor Joseph Turkaly. It is a powerful reminder of the experiences of immigrants who have come to America. At the base of the statue is text in Glagoltic, the original language of Croatians. It includes a Grb, or Croatian shield, and is created in a Pletar motif, which represents the Trinity. Immigrant Mother was installed between 2013 and 2015.
  38. Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig (1778-1852). Jann was known as the father of modern gymnastics. He founded schools and clubs intended to restore the German spirit through physical empowerment and skill while Prussian land was occupied by the French. Jann was a leader in the movement to free Germany from Napoleonic rule. Also a writer and political philosopher, Jann popularized the “Four F” motto in Germany; in English, the four words mean “fresh, pious, cheerful, and free.” His sculpture was dedicated in the early 1930s.
  39. St. John Paul II (1920-2005) Canonized in 2014, Pope John Paul II was born Karol Jozef Wojtyla in Wadowice, Poland. He was the first non-Italian pope since the 16th century and became known for his effort to improve relations with Jewish, Muslim and other faiths. He was the most widely traveled pope in history, having visited 129 countries to spread a message of multicultural and interfaith acceptance. As a young man, Wojtyla attended an underground Catholic seminary while Poland was under German occupation; he later was lauded for having protected Jews from Nazi arrest and persecution. His statue was created by noted Polish sculptor Andrzej Pitynski in 2018 and dedicated in the Polish Garden in 2019.
  40. Joyce, James (1882-1941). James was one of the most important writers of the 20th century. His use of avante garde and stream-of-consciousness techniques influenced generations of writers. Joyce wrote short stories, novels, poems and literary criticism. His best known and most celebrated work is Ulysses (1922), a parallel to Homer’s Odyssey; other famous works include Dubliners (1914), A Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegan’s Wake (1939). Joyce once wrote, “For myself, I always write about Dublin because if I can get to the heart of Dublin, I can get to the heart of all the cities in the world. In the particular is contained the universal.” His monument is in the Irish Garden.
  41. Khmelnytsky, Bohdan (1595-1657) Khmelnystsky was a Ukrainian born in land ruled by the Polish crown. He became part of the Cossacks, a group of predominantly Slavic, semi-military, Christian Orthodox people who became committed to democracy and self-governance. They lived in communities north of the Baltic Sea. Khmelnystky led uprisings against Polish rule and worked to establish an independent Cossack state in the Ukraine. He looked for alliances to Russia to fend off incursions into Ukrainian land and in 1654, signed the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Russian tsar.
  42. Kollar, Jan (1793-1852) Kollar was a poet, scientist and politician and main proponent of the Pan-Slavism movement. This ideology recognized the commonality of the Slavic people in Eastern Europe, particularly the Balkans. Kollar urged unity for Slavic-speaking peoples, who had been ruled by non-Slavic empires for centuries. Kollar is known for the poetic masterpiece, “Daughter of Glory,” in which he defended the use of native language and said, “What hundreds of blundering ages prepared is changed by a single epoch.” His statue in the Slovak Garden was sculpted by J. Tenkacs and dedicated in 1934
  43. Komensky, Jan (1592-1670) Komensky is considered the “father” of modern education. He was a Czech philosopher, pedagogue, and theologian. Komensky championed the idea of universal education and advised schools and governments throughout Protestant Europe, including those in Sweden, England, the Netherlands and Hungary. He proposed, among other ideals, that classes be taught in native languages instead of Latin, that learning should happen in gradual development from simple to complex or comprehensive concepts; that learning should be lifelong, and accessible to poor children and to women. Komensky was from the Moravian, or eastern region of what is now the Czech Republic. His statue in the Czech Garden, by Frank Jirouch, was dedicated in the 1930s.
  44. Kosach-Kvitka, Larysa (also known as Lesya Ukrainka) (1871-1913) Kosach-Kvitka is one of Ukraine’s foremost writers, best known for poems and plays. She was a political, civic and feminist activist. Her writing is associated with her belief in her country’s freedom. Between 1895 and 1807, she became a member of the Literary and Artistic Society in Kyiv, which was banned in 1905 because of its association with revolutionary activists. In 1888, when Ukrainka was 17, she and her brother organized a literary circle called Pleyada (The Pleiades) to promote Ukrainian literature and the translation of foreign classics into Ukrainian. Among Ukrainka’s most famous works are On the Wings of Songs (1893), a collection of poems, Thoughts and Dreams (1899), Echos (1902) and the epic poem Ancient Fairy Tale (1893). Her plays included Princess (1913) and Forest Song (1911).
  45. Kudirka, Vincas (1858-1899 ) Vincas Kudirka was a physician and poet who contributed greatly to a sense of Lithuanian identity and culture. Regarded as a national hero, Kudirka wrote the Lithuanian National Anthem and published many popular Lithuanian folk songs. While studying in Warsaw as a young man, he and other students formed a secret society (Lietuva) and he later published a clandestine newspaper, Varpas (“The Bell”) both of which promoted Lithuanian nationalism. His bust in the Lithuanian Garden was dedicated in 1938.
  46. Latvian Sculptures (arch, stream, rock with namejs).
  47. Liszt, Franz (1811-1886) Franz Liszt is one of Hungary’s greatest composers. He was also a virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, organist, writer, philanthropist and Hungarian nationalist. A prolific composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School of music and left behind an extensive and diverse body of work. He experimented in musical forms, developing the symphonic poem and thematic transformations, and contributed to innovations in harmony. Among his works are Hungarian Rhapsodies, La campanella, Gretchen, Mephistopheles, Inferno and the New Grand Overture. Liszt composed hundreds of pieces, from sacred works, to symphonic poems, to pieces for piano and orchestra. Liszt loved to tour and perform as a pianist and from 1841 to 1849, appeared three to four times each week, performing in more than 1,000 concerts. He was said to have a mesmerizing personality and stage presence. He donated much of his concert proceeds to charity, including the Hungarian National School of Music. After the age of 40, he gave away all his wealth to humanitarian causes. The Hungarian Garden is dedicated to this beloved figure and plays host to a Liszt concert in June of each year. His statue was created by John Tenkacs and installed in 1934, before the garden was officially dedicated.
  48. Lonnert, Elias (1802-1884) Lonnert was a physician, Finnish language expert and collector of traditional Finnish poetry and folklore. He’s best known for creating the Finnish national epic poem, Kalevala in 1835. The poem was created by gathering ballads and lyric poems from Finnish oral traditions. As a young physician, Lonnert worked with poor peasants devastated by disease; he respected traditional folk medicines but also promoted good hygiene and preventative health. Lonnert’s true passion was his native Finnish language and collecting folk tales from Finns. His work was recognized by his appointment as chair of Finnish Literature at the University of Helsinki in 1853. Lonnert compiled the first Finnish-Swedish dictionary; he also published a botany text, the first scientific text written in Finnish rather than Latin. The statue was installed in 1958.
  49. Madach, Imre (1823-1864) Madach was a Hungarian aristocrat, writer, poet, lawyer and politician. He is best known for penning the epic dramatic poem, The Tragedy of Man. It was inspired by the tragic events of the failed Hungarian Revolution of 1848/1849 and the deaths of his sister and her husband, who spent time as a prisoner of war. The poem today is a central piece of the repertoire of Hungarian theater companies and mandatory reading for secondary school students in Hungary. The Tragedy of Man features Adam, Eve and Lucifer moving through 10 turning points in history. Madach’s statue was created by sculptor Alexander Finta and installed in 1950.
  50. Maironis, Jonas (1862-1932) Maironis was a Catholic priest known for launching a new school of poetry in Lithuania and is considered the greatest Lithuanian poet of the late 1800s. He was an active member of the Lithuanian National Revival and worked to ensure the preservation of Lithuanian language and culture. Maironis’ most famous poem, “The Voice of Spring” evoked the emotions of Lithuanian’s struggle for freedom, love of nature, and pride in one’s native language and homeland.
  51. Marica, Milena (1875-1948). Maric was a Serbian physicist and mathematician, among the only women to attend the Zurich Polytechnic around the turn of the century. She also was the first wife of Albert Einstein and was thought to have contributed to his scientific discoveries.
  52. Mokranjac, Stevan. 1856-1914. Mokranjac is one of Serbia’s most important composers; particularly of musical romanticism. He created many sacred works in a polyphonic style and celebrated the music of rural areas in Serbia. Even today, his choral music and chants are the basis of much Serbian church music. Among his Mokranjac’s work are Garlands, The Divine Liturgy of St. John Crysostom, and The Glorification of St. Sava. The composer also served as the conductor of the Belgrade Choir Society and the Serbian School of Music.
  53. Thomas Moore (1779-1852) Moore was a poet, singer, songwriter and entertainer who was one of Ireland’s leading society figures in his day. He collected Irish tunes and wrote lyrics to many of them; they later were compiled into the “Irish Melodies” songbook, also known as “Moore’s Melodies.” Among Moore’s popular songs were “Mistrel Boy.” He also wrote the book, “Epistles, Odes and Other Poems.” His song, Last Rose of Summer inspired the selection of roses for the Irish Garden.
  54. Mother Teresa (1910-1997) Born Anjeze Gonxhe Bojaxiu, Teresa was a Roman Catholic nun and missionary known for her work with the poor in India, beginning with those destitute and dying in Calcutta. The community she founded, Missionaries of Charity, grew to over 4,500 members active in 133 countries. They manage homes for people dying of HIV/ADIS, leprosy and tuberculosis. Mother Teresa was beloved in her native Albania and around the world. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 and was canonized as St. Teresa of Calcutta in 2016. Her statue was created by the Albanian artist Kreshik Xhiko when the Albanian Garden was dedicated in 2012.
  55. Nemcova, Bozena (Barbara), 1820-1862. The Czech novelist was best known for The Granda, published in 1855 said to be inspired by her own maternal grandmother, and The Village Under Mountains. She also wrote fairy tales and legends.
  56. O’Brien, Edna (1930-present) O’Brien is an acclaimed Irish writer who former Irish President Mary Robinson called “one of the great creative writers of her generation.” O’Brien won the Irish PEN Award in 2001 and the Frank O’Connor International Short Story Award in 2011 for Faber and Faber, a collection of short stories. O’Brien has written candidly about lives of women, including their sexual lives; leading to some of her books being burned and banned in the early days of her career. Her early works include the trilogy, The Country Girls, The Lonely Girl, and Girls in their Married Bliss, all written between 1960 and 1964. Other famous works include biographies of James Joyce and Lord Byron. Her most recent work, “Girls,” published in 2019, is a novel based on the kidnapping of young girls by the Boko Haram terrorist group. She is in the Writers’ Court of the Irish Garden.
  57. O’Casey, Sean. (1880-1964) O’Casey was a prolific playwright and memoirist who was one of the first in Ireland to write about Dublin’s working classes. O’Casey was a committed socialist whose work often contained anti-war and Irish rebel themes. His best-known works include the Within the Gates, Red Roses for Me, the Harvest Festival, Purple Dust and Juno and the Paycock, which became a Broadway play. His ballad, Grand Oul Dame Britannia, was a popular Irish rebel music staple.
  58. O’Connor, Frank (1903-1966) Irish novelist, poet, and short story writer, O’Connor was the only child of a hard-working mother and an alcoholic, abusive father. His poverty-stricken childhood and the domestic abuse in his home were themes in stories and memoirs. In 1918, O’Connor joined the Irish Republican Army; he was imprisoned for nearly a year in 1922 for opposing the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. After being released, O’Connor became a teacher, theater director and writer and began moving in literary circles. Some of his best-known works include The Man of the House, The Big Fellow, a biography of revolutionary leader Michael Collins, the memoirs An Only Child and My Father’s Son. In his later decades, O’Connor lived and taught in the United States, publishing many short stories in the New Yorker magazine. The Frank O’Connor International Short Story award was named in his honor.
  59. Paderewski, Ignacy Jan (1860-1941) Paderewski was a pianist, composer, philanthropist and prime minister of Poland following its gaining independence after World War I. His fame as a concert pianist allowed him access to diplomatic circles and aided his support of the Polish independence movement. Paderewski toured the United States many times, and came to know President Woodrow Wilson, urging him to create an independent Polish state at the Paris Peace Conference of 191 (?). In his 10 months in office as prime minister, Paderewski’s government achieved many remarkable milestones, including the establishment of a public education system. In addition to his famous concert tours, Paderewski composed over 70 orchestral, instrumental and vocal works. Among them are “Polish Symphony,” Polish Fantasies on Original Themes,” and Manru, the only opera by a Polish composer to have been performed at the Metropolitan Opera. Paderewski also was known as a philanthropist and supported unemployed musicians during the Great Depression. His statue in the Polish Garden was created by artist and Antioch college professor Amos Mazzolini and dedicated in 1947.
  60. Palacky, Frantisek (1798-1876) Palacky is considered the most influential leader of the Czech National Revival movement of the mid-1800s. Fluent in 11 Slavic languages, Palacky began his career as a teacher and became a historian, publishing the “The History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia” in 1836; it remains a classic study of Czech history. Palacky is often called “The Father of the Nation,” and is in league with Masaryk and the King of Bohemia as leading defenders of Czech identity and culture. Frank Jirouch sculpted the Palacky bust.
  61. Past Pavilion, African American Cultural Garden. See Door of No Return.
  62. Peace Monument.
  63. Pearce, Padraig (1879-1916) Pearce was a teacher, lawyer, poet, writer, nationalist and political activist and prominent member of the Gaelic Revival. Believing that language was an important part of a nation’s identity and that education was key to developing language, Pearce founded St. Enda’s School for Boys, and helped to found St. Ita’s School for Girls. Both taught in Irish and English. Pearce was known for his poem, “The Wayfarer.” Pearce became a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood in 1913, and led the Easter Uprising in April 1916. The effort failed; he and 15 others were captured and executed by firing squad.
  64. King Peter I (1844-1921) Peter, a descendant of the Karadordevic line, assumed the throne after the Obrenovic dynasty was overthrown. A scholar as well as political leader, Peter created a Serbian language translation of John Stuart Mills’ “On Liberty” in 1869. He was known as the “First Serbian King” or the “First Yugoslav King” and promoted political liberties, freedom of the press, and parliamentary democracy. The constitution written under his reign was among the most liberal in Europe at the time. His rule has been considered a “Golden Age” in Serbian history and he gained nearly cult status in the country during and after his time as king. Nearly all the regional monuments to him were destroyed after the Communist takeover in 1945; some have been restored. His statue in the Serbian Garden dedicated in 2008.
  65. Petrovic, Petar II. (1813-1851). Prince and Bishop, Petrovic, also known as Njegas, was a poet, philosopher, spiritual and political leader in Montenegro (explain). Following the death of his uncle, Petar I, Njegas tried to unite the tribes of Montenegro and form a centralized state. He was a proponent of uniting and liberating the Serbian people. Njegas wanted to cede his princely rights in exchange for a union of Serbia and Montenegro and recognition as the leader of what now would be the Serbian Orthodox Church. That didn’t happen in his lifetime, but his efforts helped lay the foundation for modern political concepts in Serbia. His most famous literary work was the epic poem, The Mountain Wreath.
  66. Petrovic, Nadezda(1873-1915). Petrovic is among the most important Serbian painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and a national heroine beloved for her humanitarian work, having volunteered as a nurse in the early 20th century Balkan Wars. She was a co-founder of the women’s humanitarian organization called The Circle of Serbian Sisters. Petrovic was an impressionist and follower of European Expressionism, an art form that was slow to be accepted in its time. She organized the first Yugoslav Art Exhibit in 1904, and initiated the First Yugoslav Art Colony in 1905. Her work featured layers of color, often large surfaces of bright reds and complimentary greens and strong brush strokes. She opened a teaching studio in Belgrade in 1912. Petrovic volunteered as a nurse in Balkan Wars in 1912, 1913 and 1914. She died of typhoid fever, contracted from taking care of wounded soldiers. Her statue in the Serbian Gardens was sculpted by and dedicated in 2018.
  67. Pillars of Gediminas These pillars in the Lithuanian Garden are modelled after pillars in the ancient city of Vilnius. They represent the Gedeminias dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 14th to the 16th centuries. The pillars, often used on crests and monuments, are one of Europe’s oldest emblems and are a symbol of pride in Lithuanian culture.
  68. Qibbani, Nizar (1923-1998) Qibbani is one of the most revered contemporary poets in the Arab world. His progressive poems explored themes of love, eroticism, feminism and Arab nationalism. He was trained as a diplomat and served as a cultural attache in several cities in Europe, Beirut and Cairo. His most famous poems include, The Brunette Told Me, Jasmine Scent of Damascus, To the Legendary Damascene, Prince Tawfiq Qabbani (dedicated to his deceased son) and Balquis. His experience of loss and grieving for his country during war time influenced his work. His death was mourned by Arabs the world over. The bust of Qibbani was created by sculptor Leila Khoury and it was installed in 2015.
  69. Runeberg, Johan Ludwig (1804-1877) Runeberg was a Finnish-Swedish lyric poet, who wrote the lyrics to the poem that became the Finnish national anthem (Vart land). He also modernized the Finnish Lutheran hymnal. Between 1848 and 1860, Runeberg wrote arguably the most important epic Finnish poem outside of the Kaleval, Tales of Ensign Stal, which chronicled the Finnish war with Russia in 1808-1809. The poem talked of the common humanity in all sides of the war, while lauding the heroism of the Finns. Runeberg also wrote poems of life in rural Finland; exemplified by Farmer Paava, a story of a farmer who endures years of harsh climates and bad harvests, then finally experiences a bountiful year. The farmer then gives half of his crop to his needy neighbors. Finland celebrates Runeberg Day on Feb. 5, the anniversary of his birth, often with Runeberg’s torte, an almond-flavored pastry.
  70. St. Sava (1174-1236) St. Sava is the patron saint of the Serbian people and is venerated throughout the country. He was also known as “The Enlightener.” St. Sava had a profound influence on medieval literature and helped write the Serbian constitution. An orthodox monk, St. Sava was the first archbishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church and established the Monastery at Hilander, an important center of cultural and religious life in Serbia. Sava’s image and legacy strengthened the Serbian people in later centuries when its independence and culture were threatened.
  71. Seinkiewicz, Henryk (1846-1916) Seinkiewicz, a journalist, novelist and Nobel Prize winner, was the most popular Polish writers of his generation. He’s best known for the Trilogy novels (With Fire and Sword, The Deluge and Sir Michael) and Quo Vadis, an epic love story set in Nero’s time. Some of his historical novels have been turned into films. Seinkiewicz spent significant time in the United States, writing travel essays for European publications and plays. He used his fame and popularity to promote the unification of Poland and the preservation of the Polish language.
  72. Shakespeare, William (1564-1616) The bust of Shakespeare in the British Garden was the first dedicated in Rockefeller Park. Leo Weidenthal, a Shakespeare enthusiast and local publisher, wanted Cleveland to participate in the worldwide commemorations of the death of Shakespeare in 1916 by building a garden in his honor. Many civic leaders participated in its dedication, and a local actress performed a dramatic reading of a Shakespeare sonnet. Officials then were inspired to create other cultural gardens. The Shakespeare Garden was later renamed the British Garden. Shakespeare is considered the greatest of British poets and playwrights and his works remain classics the world over. He wrote 39 plays, both tragic and comedic, and 154 sonnets, along with long narrative poems. Among his plays are Hamlet, Othello, Richard III, a Midsummer Night’s Dream, and many more. Shakespeare also was an actor and a founder of the Globe Theater in London in 1608.

    Artists Joseph Motto and Stephen Rebeck created the Shakespeare bust for the Garden’s opening in 1916.

  73. Shaw, George Bernard (1856-1950) Shaw was an Irish playwright, literary critic, journalist and political activist who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1925; his ideas have greatly influenced western theater, culture and politics. Among his works were Man and Superman (1902), Pygmalion (1912), Saint Joan (1923), Major Barbara, The Doctor’s Dilemma, and Caesar and Cleopatra. Shaw was the leading dramatist of his generation, using contemporary satire and historical allegory. He introduced a new realism into drama, with his plays often vehicles for dissecting political, social and religious ideas. Shaw won an academy award for his screen adaptation of Pygmalion in 1938. His monument sits in the Writers Court in the Irish Garden.
  74. Shevchenko, Tara (1814-1861) Shevchenko was a beloved Ukrainian artist, poet, political figure and folklorist. His art works are considered masterpieces in painting and illustration; he’s also considered a founder of modern Ukrainian literature. Shevchenko was a member of the Brotherhood of Sts. Cyril and Methodious, a clandestine group also known as the Ukrainian-Slavic Society that promoted the political liberalism of the empire. His poems reflected his concern for the difficult living conditions and suffering of the Ukrainian people. His work included the etchings “Picturesque Ukraine” and his poems included Kobza and Hardamaky. When working at the Imperial Academy of Arts, he was ridiculed and prosecuted for writing in Ukrainian, promoting the independence of Ukraine, and criticizing the Russian Imperial House. He spent many of his adult years in exile.
  75. Sibelius, Johan (Jean) Julius Christian (1865-1957) Sibelius, a composer and violinist, is the most recognized and praised of Finnish composers. He worked in the late-Romantic and early modern eras. He was inspired by his native Finland and the epic mythological poem, Kalavela. While his compositions are intimately tied to the Scandinavian landscape, he was recognized as a master of organic unity and clarity of form. His early works such as Kullervo Symphony (1892) and the symphonic poems, Four Legends, were lauded mostly in Scandinavia, but by the early 20th century, his fame spread and his work was being performed throughout Europe; his greatest pieces were published after World War I. They include Symphony No. 5 in E Flat Major, No. 6 in D Minor and No. 7 in C Major, along with Tapiola, published in 1925.
  76. Snellman, Johan Vilhelm (1806-1881) Snellman was a philosopher and statesman, sometimes controversial in his day but now recognized along with Lonnert and Runeberg, as a primary advocate of Finnish nationalism, language and culture. He was a popular lecturer at the University of Helsinki, but his appointment was recalled after his criticism of the government (Finland was semi-autonomous under Russian rule.) He had advocated for the educated classes to use the Finnish language, spoken by most of the country’s population. After his post was recalled, he lived in voluntary exile in Sweden and Germany for several years. Upon his return, he was active in Finnish politics and attained a cabinet post in the Senate of Finland in 1863. He became the Senate’s treasurer, and established the use of markka, or Finnish currency. His major philosophical work, Laran om staten (Study of the State) was published in 1842. His face was minted on a Finnish coin in 1960.
  77. Smetana, Berdich (1824-1884) Smetana has been called the “father of Czech music,” having pioneered a musical style identified with the country’s aspirations toward independence. His most famous and popular composition was the opera The Bartered Bride. His symphonic cycle My Homeland (1879) chronicled the history and legends of his native Bohemia, and contained the popular symphonic poem, Vitava. Smetana was a child prodigy, first publicly performing at age six. He known for writing nationalist music during the Prague uprising of 1848 and later became part of the new genre of Czech theatre and opera in the 1860s. He became deaf in 1874, but continued writing music. Frank Jirouch created the sculpture of Smetana in the late 1930s.
  78. Stefanik, Milan. (1881-1919) Stefanik is considered a great hero by the Slovak people. A scientist and pilot, he was a true Renaissance man, knowledgeable in many disciplines. He studied at Charles University in Prague and moved to France for further education. Stefanik joined the French Army when World War I began and after the war lobbied for the creation of an independent Czechoslovakia. He was on his way to become minister of defense for that country when he was killed in a plane crash. His statue in the Slovak Garden has become the subject of controversy. For 90 years, it stood in Wade Park, but had to be moved because of road and sewer construction. The city was reluctant to allow its presence in the Cultural Gardens because of its philosophy of not allowing military figures in the Gardens. Some in the Slovak community preferred that the statue be placed within a Slovak community. Ultimately, the city relented and in 2013 Stefanik was installed in the Slovak Garden.
  79. Synge, John Millington (1871-1909) Synge was a playwright and author of dramatic prose and poetry. He co-founded the Abbey Theater in Dublin, along with contemporaries W.B. Yeats and Lady Gregory. Despite his affluent upbringing, Synge wrote about the harsh realities of Catholic peasants in rural Ireland. Part of the Irish Literary Renewal of the late 1800s and early 1900s, Synge influenced such famous Irish writers as Samuel Beckett. He’s best known for his drama Playboy of the Western World, which caused riots in its opening days in Dublin. Other works included The Tinker’s Wedding. His monument stands in the Writers’ Court in the Irish Garden.
  80. Tesla, Nikola (1856-1943) Tesla was an inventor, electrical and mechanical engineer and futurist best known for his work on the alternating current electrical distribution system and the AC induction motor. Born in the Serbian village of Smiljan, then part of the Austrian Empire, Tesla’s ancestors were from western Serbia, near Montenegro. He emigrated to the United States in 1884. His early inventions, including the induction motor, were patented by Westinghouse in 1888. He also contributed to the fields of mechanical generators, electrical discharge tubes, early X-ray imaging and wireless lighting.
  81. Twain, Mark (1835-1910) Mark Twain, born Samuel Langhorn Clemens, was one of America’s foremost American writers, satirists, and lecturers. Growing up in Missouri, he spent time as a river boat pilot and journalist and traveled extensively up and down the Mississippi River and the American Midwest. These early days were inspirations for much of his uniquely American novels. They include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Hucklebury Finn, the Prince and the Pauper, and A Connecticut in King Arthur’s Court. Frank Jirouch created the Twain bust for the American Garden. It was dedicated in 1935, after Cleveland public school children raised funds to have it installed on the 100th anniversary of his birth. In 1938, Twain’s daughter, Clara visited Cleveland and placed a wreath on the statue.
  82. Virgil (70 BC – 19 BC – estimated) Virgil was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustine period who wrote one of the most important poems in the history of Western literature, the Aeneid. Virgil also wrote the classic Bucolics, and the Georgics. The Aeneid was commissioned by Emperor Augustus and was said to have take 11 years to write. It follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants will establish the city of Rome. The bust of Virgil in the Italian Garden was a gift from the Italian government and installed in 1930.
  83. Washington, Booker T. (1856-1915) Washington was an educator, author and advisor to presidents who helped fund, build and grow the Tuskegee Institute. A leading voice in the African American community of the late 1800s and early 1900s, Washington was among the last generation of leaders born into slavery. He became a prominent business leader and founded the National Negro Business League. Washington promoted a philosophy of education and entrepreneurship as the path to progress.
  84. When the Sun Gets the Moon (Mosaic tile piece, Ethiopian Garden, 2019). This mosaic reproduction of a painting by Ethiopian artist Zerihum Yetmegeta is a counterpart to the mural on the front of the monument in the Ethiopian Garden. The front mural depicts the stages of Ethiopian history, from the beginning of humanity, to the preponderance of technology and globalization. We are now in an age, says the artist, when everything we do has a global affect, and, because of environmental destruction and climate change, we are facing the unthinkable possibility of the collapse of civilization. “When the Sun Gets the Moon” is a plea from Ethiopia, where the human race began, to “do better and avert this collapse.”
  85. Zorman, Ivan (1885-1957) Zorman was a poet and composer who spent most of his life in Northeast Ohio. Zorman’s family was from the former Yugoslavia and emigrated to the United States when he was four. He later returned to his homeland for studies. He also studied at Western Reserve University in Cleveland and had degrees in language, literature and music. Zorman wrote six volumes of poetry and translated Slovenian works into English. An influential member of Northeast Ohio’s Slovenian community, Zorman’s work and influence has been recognized as well in Slovenia.